Jana Přibylová trained from 1982-1986 at the Music and Dance School, later known as the Dance Conservatory, in Prague. She competed in several ballet competitions including the National Ballet Competition in Brno (1984) where she won the Honour Award, International Ballet Competitions in Lausanne (1985) and Varna (1986 & 1988) and the National Ballet Competition in Brno (1987) where she won 3rd prize.
She was a member of the Ballet of the National Theatre Brno from 1986-1989. In the 1989/1990 season she joined the Ballet of the State Opera Hannover, Germany. She then returned to the Czech Republic and rejoined the Ballet of the National Theatre Brno as a soloist.
She has the perfect disposition for the classical repertoire in which she has performed all the great roles such as Swanhilda in Coppélia, Giselle, Clara in The Nutcracker, Aurora in The Sleeping Beauty, Odette/Odile in Swan Lake, Nikiya and Gamzatti in La Bayadère, Medora in Le Corsaire, Shireen in The Legend of Love, Natalie in Natalie, the Swiss Milkmaid, Juliet in Romeo and Juliet, Kitri in Don Quixote, Valencienne in The Merry Widow and Phrygia in Spartacus. She also has performed many roles from the contemporary repertoire including Signorina in Signorina Gioventù, Esmeralda in Notre-Dame de Paris, Zobeida in Scherazade, Marie Stuart in the ballet of the same name, Chloe in Daphnis and Chloe, Rose in Rose Latulippe, Anastasia in Ivan the Terrible and the solo role in D.M.J 1953-1977.
She was honoured with the Czech Literary Fund Award in 1993 for the title role of Natalie. She received the Phillip Morris Flower Award in 1996 for the best ballet artist in the Czech Republic for the role of Kitri in Don Quixote. She won the 1999 Thalia Award, the Czech Republic’s highest artistic prize, for her portrayal of Odette/Odile in Swan Lake. She was also nominated for the Thalia Award in 1993 for the role of Esmeralda in Notre-Dame de Paris, in 1996 for Juliet in Romeo and Juliet, in 2001 for Clara in The Nutcracker, in 2004 for Nikiya in La Bayadère and in 2007 for Phrygia in Spartacus.
Since the 2011/2012 season she has been a ballet mistress with the Ballet of the National Theatre Brno.